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oil is the lifeblood of the World's economy. It was a critical element in two World Wars and in the Cold War, and, as recent events in the Middle East confirm, people are willing to fight for it. The cheap energy it provides, especially for transport and agriculture, was one of the main factors that made possible the economic prosperity and growth that the World has enjoyed for the past fifty years and more. People rely on it everywhere, and in many forms, and they have become so accustomed to its ready availability that they take it for granted. To conceive of a world without traffic jams and airliners is unthinkable, and while not so obvious, oil lies behind every supermarket shelf, fuelling the tractor that ploughs the field and the delivery van that brings the consumer his food. Yet everyone knows that it is a finite and irreplaceable commodity, formed long ago in the geological past. What no one knows is just how finite it is. This book is an effort to try to answer that question : not in detail, but at least in orders of magnitude. More useful than the figures themselves is the discussion of the elements involved in addressing the subject. While it is impossible to predict the precise pattern of future production, which will be affected by many unforeseeable factors, one can at least begin to think in terms of resource constraint instead of an ever expanding supply of oil.
The access and benefit-sharing (ABS) policy process of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), and wider discussions about the ethical and conservation issues arising from the commercial use of biodiversity and traditional knowledge, depend upon a well-developed understanding of the activities known broadly as 'bioprospecting'. However, the pace at which our understanding of genetic and other biological resources is accelerating, and market and industry trends are also undergoing constant change.
This book provides information and insights into current practices and trends in biodiversity research and bioprospecting, including for potential medicines, food and cosmetics. It presents background information on markets, research and development, and explores recent extraordinary developments in science and technology and their implications for ABS policy development and implementation. The authors present a brief history of the commercial use of biodiversity, and review key trends across sectors. The book continues with chapters devoted to the main industry sectors, including pharmaceuticals and healthcare, agriculture, industrial process biotechnology and food and beverages. Each chapter includes explanatory boxes to describe key technologies and concepts which are less widely understood, as well as input from various stakeholders including industry representatives, NGOs and researchers. It concludes with a review of industry awareness of and engagement with the CBD, ABS and other policy processes. It is an invaluable resource for all concerned with commercial bioprospecting and the implementation of ABS laws and regulations, particularly in light of the adoption of the Nagoya Protocol.
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